The intent of the Ph.D. is to prepare one to do research aimed at expanding the field of Business Administration and to teach advanced topics in that area. While it is broadly based, the doctoral education is characterized by in-depth study in a selected specialty. This involves the development of the ability to critique as well as understand the current research literature in that general area. It goes beyond the mastery of standard techniques for problem solving. Furthermore, a doctoral education in intended to prepare one for long-term independent research and intellectual development.